August 2017 Abstracts

Recent Findings in Acetaldehyde Emission from Leather

by Jochen Ammenn, B. Wegner and B. Dannheim

Acetaldehyde emissions are a significant challenge for automotive leather producing tanneries. This is especially true to meet the requirements for the Chinese market. Unlike formaldehyde, acetaldehyde is not used as a building block of tanning agents or auxiliaries and has rarely been traced in extraction assays in which the detection medium is water. However, it contributes to significant problems in emission tests for leathers in which the molecules are detected in the air. Until recently, few data points on acetaldehyde emissions were available, mostly on finished leather. In this publication, our new, facile method for the measurement of acetaldehyde emission will be introduced, evaluated, and exemplified with data across the whole process of leather making, from beam house to finished leather. With our new method we could show that the emissions generally decrease from skin to crust. Biochemical background for the high levels of acetaldehyde in skin will be given. Through the application of suitable scavengers, acetaldehyde emissions could be reduced significantly in automotive leathers.

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A Non-destructive Evaluation of Fluffiness of Leather

by M. Muthukrishnan, S. M. Jaimohan, M. D. Naresh, R. Ramesh, R. Aravindhan and N. K. Chandrababu

Many of the comfort related properties of leather are generally assessed subjectively by experience sorters. Fluffiness is one such comfort related property of leather which not only gives volume to the leather, but provides insulation because of entrapped air. The testing method reported in this paper is a new concept in the objective measurement of the fluffiness of leather which is non- destructive in nature and should be valuable to the leather industry.

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Sodium Chloride Substitute for Lower Salt Goat Skin Preservation: A Novel Approach

by Md. Abul Hashem, Md. Navid Arman, Md. Hasibur Rahman Sheikh and Md. Mazharul Islam

Animal skin is the basic raw materials for the tanning industry, which is the by-product of meat industry. The degradation of skin starts within several hours after the death of animal if it is left untreated. Application of common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is the most popular preservation method of skin; it preserves the skin by its dehydrating ability and bacteriostatic effect. The negative effect of sodium chloride is that it generates a huge amount of pollution in the form of total dissolved solids (TDS) during leather processing. In this present study, an investigation was made to preserve goat skin using plant leaf paste. The preservation process was evaluated by monitoring different parameters e.g., shrinkage temperature, hair slip, putrefaction, odor, moisture content, extractable nitrogen, and bacterial count in comparison to the conventional wet salting method. Results indicate that the leaf paste could be used as curing agents to preserve goat skin. Combination of 10% leaf paste + 10% NaCl could preserve the goat skin for a period of 30 days. In this less-salt preservation method, pollution load was reduced e.g., chlorides and TDS in soaking operation by 45.2% and 49.8%, respectively.

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Studies on the Physico-chemical Behavior of Synthetic Tanning Agents in Non-aqueous Medium

by Gladstone Christopher Jayakumar, Mohammed Javid, Allic Raja, Dhatharey Hathareyan Aruna and Jonnalagadda Raghava Rao

Green labelling is a high priority issue in the modern society that has lead to several green technology initiatives in day-to-day applications. Among the several industry sectors, leather industry, is known to contribute to environmental pollution. Though, there are several alternate cleaner technologies available, till date no drastic shift in methodologies of clean technology has been implemented. In our efforts to use ‘green’ methodologies, in the present investigation, we have chosen green solvents like ethanol and heptane as possible carrier medium for synthetic tanning agents in leather processing. These tanning agents are performance chemicals that impart special properties to leather depending on end applications. In this study, tunable interfacial properties that arise between the solvated syntans and different solvents + water mixtures have been employed judiciously. Representative class of synthetic tanning agents have been chosen for the evaluation. The interfacial properties of liquid/liquid (solution) have been examined to understand the influence of solvents in the post tanning applications in leather making. Physical characteristics like tensile and tear strength have been determined for experimental leathers. Results show that syntans in ethanol and heptane medium form uniform dispersion and act as diffusing vehicle. The results suggest that the bound and unbound water in the leather matrix can form interfacial tension gradient with the solvent enabling effective diffusion of the chemicals even with non-polar solvents like heptane. Physical strength characteristics of experimental leather have met standard norms. The results have demonstrated an insight into the fundamental behavior of syntans in non-aqueous medium and provide clues for real time application in leather processing.

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